Mineral 1.0Test your knowledge of specific minerals

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Minerals by class: Carbonates | Halides | Hydroxides | Native elements | Oxides | Phosphates | Silicates | Sulfates | Sulfides
Silicate Subclasses: Amphiboles | Cyclosilicates | Frameworks | Nesosilicates | Phyllosilicates | Pyroxenes | Sorosilicates
  

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  SilicateActinolite
Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2

Other names/forms:
Tremolite

Most distinguishing features:
Habit and colour are best indicators.

  SulfateAlabaster
CaSO4 - 2H2O

Other names/forms:
Gypsum

Most distinguishing features:
Identified by hardness and good cleavage.

Industrial/economical uses:
Modern use is in gypsum wallboard used in construction. Used as an ornamental stone and for sculpture due to its softness.

  SilicateAntigorite
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4

Other names/forms:
Serpentine

Most distinguishing features:
Lustre, colour and habit are indicative.

  PhosphateApatite
Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl)

Most distinguishing features:
Colour, crystal habit and hardness are good indicators.

Industrial/economical uses:
Source of phosphate used in fertilizers and other industrial applications. Fluorine is also extractable from apatite.

  CarbonateAragonite
CaCO3

Most distinguishing features:
Stalactitic habit, hardness (greater than that of calcite) and colour.

Industrial/economical uses:
Same as calcite, however abundance is much much less than that of calcite, thus having little economic value.

  SulfideArsenopyrite
FeAsS

Most distinguishing features:
Gives off a garlic odour when crushed or heated. Colour is indicative.

Industrial/economical uses:
A possible source of arsenic, however better secondary sources from smelting processes of other ores exist.

  SilicateAugite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(SiAl)2O6

Most distinguishing features:
Colour, cleavage and hardness are indicative of a pyroxene. Augite has 2 cleavage planes at 90.

Industrial/economical uses:
None.

  CarbonateAzurite
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2

Most distinguishing features:
Colour is reliable, association with malachite is also indicative.

Industrial/economical uses:
A minor ore of copper, also has ornamental uses. Sometimes a pigment (when powdered).